Influence of peptide bioregulators on morphology of parenchymatous organs
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Ultrasound diagnosis. Method capacities
Chapter 2. Effect of Peptide Bioregulators on thyroid gland morphology
2.1. Summary on thyroid gland structure and functions
2.2. Thyroid gland disorders
2.3. Current diagnosis methods of thyroid gland disorders
2.4. Thyroid gland ultrasound diagnosis
2.5. Structural changes in the thyroid gland at peptide bioregulators
Chapter 3. Effect of peptide bioregulators on the prostatic gland morphology
3.1. Summary on the prostate structure and functions
3.2. Prostate age-related changes
3.3. Prostatic gland disorders
3.4. Current methods of diagnosis of the prostatic gland disorders
3.5. Prostatic gland ultrasound diagnosis
3.6. Structural changes in the prostatic gland at peptide bioregulators
Chapter 4. Effect of peptide bioregulators on morphology of other glandular
4.1. Pineal gland (epiphysis)
4.1.1. Summary on the pineal gland structure and functions
4.1.2. Pineal gland disorders
4.1.3. Current diagnostic methods of pineal gland disorders
4.1.4. Structural changes in the pineal gland at peptide bioregulators
4.2.1. Summary on the pancreas structure and functions
4.2.2. Pancreas disorders
4.2.3. Current diagnostic methods of pancreas disorders
4.2.4. Pancreas ultrasound diagnosis
4.2.5. Structural changes in the pancreas at peptide bioregulators
4.3. Mammary gland (breast)
4.3.1. Summary on the breast structure and functions
4.3.2. Breast disorders
4.3.3. Current diagnosis methods of breast disorders
4.3.4. Breast ultrasound diagnosis
4.3.5. Structural changes in the breast at peptide
Extension of human life span is the most important objective of modern science. With ageing body regulating functions deteriorate and are accompanied by the immunity disorders and development of age-related diseases [1, 2, 7, 21, 33, 35, 37]. The ageing process is characterized with a complex of alterations due to impairments in many body functions, diminution of adaptive capacities, progressive growth of abnormal alterations and death probability. The causes and mechanisms of ageing are not quite clear as yet. A great deal of theories were suggested to explain some or other ageing mechanisms [30, 34]. According to one of them ageing is caused by accumulation of pathologic alterations in the body, and the rate for such an accumulation might be influenced by genetic factors as well as by environmental conditions [11, 12]. An issue of health maintenance and longevity consists mainly in utilization of natural body reserve capacities. Therefore, issues regarding implementation of the very own body biological potential are still of current interest being key objectives for gerontology in general and geriatrics, in particular . One of the priority trends of current research in gerontology is a concept of biological regulation (bioregulation) suggested and proved by V. Kh. Khavinson and V. G. Morozov [25, 26, 27]. The bioregulation as per up-to-date notions proceeds on several levels such as supracellular, intercellular, intracellular and molecular. The bioregulation mechanisms in spite of multilevel hierarchy perform a single task to coordinate processes of biosynthesis, interchanging and reproduction of genetic information. The bioregulation unites all control mechanisms in a pluricellular organism .
Multiplicity and complexity of the regulating processes suggest presence of universal mediators for information transmission to a cell. Such mediators are peptide bioregulators that exist in different tissues and reveal a wide range of biological activity. They participate in intercellular interactions by transmitting information recorded through corresponding amino acid sequence from one cell to another . Another and not-the-least objective for gerontology is to pursue for new means of the ageing inhibition and life-span extension (the so-called geroprotectors). Development of new therapeutics based on endogenous physiologic active substances produced by a body is a novel approach for restitution of functions lost with ageing .
One of the recent discoveries consists in obtaining from animal organs and tissues of the peptide bioregulators, cytomedins . Firstly the cytomedins were obtained from hypothalamic area of the cerebral cortex, pineal gland, thymus and vascular wall [25, 26]. Later peptides similar in origin and physical-chemical properties but different regarding functional activity were found in other body tissues, as well [23, 41, 42]. At present class of peptide bioregulators enumerates several dozens of known compounds and their number increases constantly. As per chemical composition they are complexes of polypeptides having molecular weight of 1000 to 10000 daltons. After experimental and clinical studies of cytomedins there appeared possibility for preventive and therapeutic application of peptide agents to enhance body resistance to impact of negative environmental factors. These researches admit development of new therapeutic agents containing peptide bioregulators of pineal gland (Epithalamin®), thymus (Thymalin®), prostate (Prostatilen®), brain cortex (Cortexin®), retina (Retinalamin®), etc. [23, 25, 26, 42].
Last years among the agents of bioregulation therapy another new class of therapeutics generally named as cytamins and being biologically active nucleoprotein complexes extracted from animal organs and tissues appeared. The said medicines relate to parapharmaceuticals and can effectively restore altered functions in organs they were extracted from [22, 43].
Normalizing effect of peptide bioregulators on the functions of various organs and tissues was found. One can note one of the mechanisms of <> activity of peptides, namely, participation of cytomedins in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as capacity of the self-regulation regarding the number and functional activity of cell elements in population [18, 27]. Therefore, one can suggest that peptide bioregulators might affect tissue morphology restituting their altered structure.
To prove the aforementioned mechanism of action for the peptide agents the clinical study of influence of cytomedins and cytamins on normalization in structure of abnormally altered tissues in parenchymatous organs.
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Copyright © 2015
Copyright © 2015