Taxorest supports the performance of the respiratory system, helps regenerate lung tissue, regulates lung function and is recommended for those suffering or recovering from lung issues. Taxorest is a nutritive supplement with natural bronchial mucous peptides. The respiratory system provides oxygen to your blood, which then brings oxygen to the rest of the tissues in your body. The respiratory system is also responsible for carbon dioxide removal. If the respiratory system and any of these functions are compromised, it can lead to debilitating and even fatal conditions.
Taxorest is a complex of peptide fractions extracted from the bronchial mucous membrane of young animals. These extracted peptides selectively interacts with the bronchial mucous membrane cells thus regulating their metabolism and increasing their functional activity.
The respiratory system transfers oxygen into the blood and removes carbon dioxide. In order to function properly, the body needs a sufficient supply of oxygen. Only four minutes without it can cause permanent damage to the brain. Thus, it is crucial to keep the respiratory system healthy by avoiding injuries, inflammation, and infections, as well as supporting the bronchial mucous.
Taxorest is recommended for everyone whose bronchi may be compromised, especially people with chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, smoker’s cough, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic cardiac failure.
Physiological Role of Short Peptides in Nutrition
V.A. Tutel’yan, V. Kh. Khavinson*, and V. V. Malinin*
Translated from Byulleten’ Eksperimental ‘noi Biologii i Meditsiny, Vol. 135, No. 1, pp. 4-10,
Here we review new data about the physiological role of short peptides and their use as biologically active food additives (parapharmaceutics). Some approaches to the development of peptide preparations for peroral administrations are considered and the mechanisms of non-specific and tissue-specific effects produced by peroral peptide parapharmaceutics are discussed. Particular attention is given to biological properties of short peptides synthesized at the St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology. These peptides hold much promise for the synthesis of parapharmaceutics increasing organism’s resistance to extreme factors and preventing accelerated aging and age-related diseases.
Endogenous peptides are involved in the compensatory and adaptive response of the organism to stress and disturbances in homeostasis. The peptide system plays a major role in neuroimmunoendocrine interactions .
Despite multilevel hierarchy, the main functions of homeostasis-regulating systems are coordination of biosynthesis and maintenance of stable genetic composition of cells in organs and tissues. Disturbances in the peptide-mediated regulation and transfer of informational molecules between cells lead to the development of pathological states associated with decreased organism’s resistance to destabilizing exogenous and endogenous factors.
Much progress was recently achieved in the synthesis of complex peptide-based preparations. Clinical efficiency of these drugs is extensively studied to substantiate their use in combination therapy of various diseases and disorders [11,13,20]. This approach is based on the fact that bioregulation in the organism is mediated by various oligopeptides selectively transferring information between the immune, nervous, and other cells. These oligopeptides are formed during partial proteolysis of precursor proteins (e.g., cytokines, growth and thymic factors, and immunoglobulins) in the immediate proximity to the corresponding receptors.
The general principle underlying organization of the protein molecule is that higher structures are determined by lower structures. Therefore, the primary sequence of amino acids includes information required for the formation of the protein molecule . According to modern views, information can be transferred by molecules consisting of 2-4 amino acid residues with polar side radicals.
Homology of protein sequences of most peptide hormones of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), insulin, calcitonin, and pituitary hormones attests to their common origin. For example, the study of the evolution of these hormones showed that insulin is synthesized in gastrointestinal mucosa in mollusks. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor have the same evolutionary origin. Moreover, insulin is evolutionarily similar to nerve growth factors. It was shown that the amino acid sequence of the peptide with insulin-like activity is similar to that of trypsin inhibitor, somatomedin, and relaxin. Comparative structural analysis of biologically active substances (BAS) secreted by cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system showed common origin of peptide hormones [12,36].
Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow;
*St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology, Northwestern Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Not only the whole molecule can affect physiological processes. Sometimes fragments of 3-4 amino acid residues are more effective than native compounds. Therefore, the regulation and coordination of functions can be realized via processing of polypeptides. During this process fragments with different activity, specificity, and effects on various physiological systems are cleaved from relatively long chains depending on the needs of organisms. Processing regulation is characterized by considerable plasticity. This process results in rapid and local formation of required regulators from preexistent precursors due to activation of specific peptidases. The mechanism of processing determines the sequence of activation of regulators. Processing regulation is most typical of peptide compounds with the linear structure. Their molecules can undergo considerable conformational changes even after cleavage of a single amino- or carboxyl-terminal amino acid residue. This cleavage is followed by changes in various properties of molecules, e.g., their hydrophobicity and the blood-tissue barriers .
A growing body of evidence indicates that regulatory oligopeptides are involved in the growth, development, and regeneration. Many oligopeptides are well-studied compounds regulating various physiological functions, coordination of homeostasis, and adaptation of functional systems to the environment was revised after studies of regulatory peptides performed over the past 2-3 decades.
Nutrition is the major environmental factor that affects the organism over the whole life. Nutrients are metabolized into structural elements of cells, provide physical and mental activity, and determine the health and lifetime. Inadequate nutrition is always followed by negative consequences. Nutrition adequate to the age, professional activity, and state of health is an important factor preventing various human diseases, including cardiovascular (atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, insult, and hypertension) and gastrointestinal pathologies, metabolic disorders (obesity and osteochondrosis), and tumors.
In developed countries people consume considerable amounts of industrially manufactured food. Technological treatment markedly reduces the contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and other BAS that regulate metabolism and functional activity of various organs and systems in the organism. In modern urbanized society, people receiving traditional nutrient products are extremely predisposed to the development of nutrient deficiency. This determines inability of protective systems in the body to respond adequately to adverse environmental factors and increases the risk of various disorders. The experience of economically developed countries indicates that it is impossible to improve the structure and quality of nutrition by traditional methods. This problem can be solved via development of new alternative methods for the production of chemically pure BAS from natural sources .
A long search and use of BAS in practice showed that various chemical compounds with a completely or partially known structure possess biological activity. BAS were efficient during the therapy of diseases and correction of mental and physical disturbances. Recent lines of research involve the analysis of BAS effectiveness in traditional spheres and other fields that develop after the appearance of compounds with new action on living matter.
There is a good reason to introduce the term “systemic preparation”, whose components participate in the regulation of various stages of the same key process. They not only initiate certain stages of this process but also attenuate negative consequences of this activation.
Apart from products of molecular biology, medicinal preparations are synthesized from traditionally used plant and animal products (even with an unknown mechanism of action). A wide use of natural medicinal preparations makes them similar to food products .
The theory of functional systems proposed by P. K. Anokhin extended and refined the notion on the mechanisms regulating homeostasis . Functional systems are involved in the regulation of a balance between nutrient substances and removal of xenobiotics and foreign antigens. The theory suggests that they recognize exogenous substrates or metabolites and transfer information to other elements of the regulatory system. After reception of the exogenous substance or metabolite and integration of information from other regulatory systems, the controlling element of this regulatory system generates a signal that triggers the operated or effector component. Information about reception of substances is transferred by hormones or mediators differing from nutrients in their chemical structure. Therefore, regulatory systems can differentiate food substrates and signals. This pathway of information transfer allows the organism to maintain the required signal at a high level even under conditions of pronounced nutrient deficiency. Many secondary messengers of signals are formed from essential compounds present in food products, but not synthesized in the body.
Information about the metabolic state is perceived by ancient (intracellular) and evolutionarily young regulatory systems (endocrine and nervous systems). Allosteric modulation is performed by the ancient regulatory system and responsible for fine adaptive reactions. The regulation of gene activation and repression contributes to the organism's adaptation to changes in food supply from the environment.
It cannot be excluded that endogenous and exogenous metabolic states are perceived similarly. Information is disintegrated into components, whose intensity is determined by receptors of the nervous and other regulatory systems at the main stages of metabolic processes. Undoubtedly, information transfer is impaired under pathological conditions. The release and accumulation of endogenous compounds (e.g., peptides) transferring abnormal information violate functional activity of regulatory systems. Therefore, consumption of BAS with food products prevents informational chaos in the regulatory systems of patients.
According to Anokhin's theory attainment of the beneficial result is characteristic of all regulatory systems. It should be emphasized that the effectiveness of regulatory systems developed during long evolution. There is a close relationship between phylogenetically developed systems and certain environmental conditions. The beneficial result can not be achieved under other conditions. Therefore, various anthropogenic factors produce a negative impact on coordinated activity of regulatory systems.
Compounds transducing signals in regulatory systems in organisms at the lower level of food chains enter the organisms of the next levels with food. If the systems in organisms of these coupled elements of the food chain are similar, these compounds can directionally affect the regulatory systems in the consumer organism. The food chain transfers not only energy, nutrients and toxins, but also information .
The regulatory systems of the intestine transfer peptides formed from proteins during digestion more rapidly than absorb the amino acid mixture, which are unusual for this organism. The small intestine contains di- and tripeptide transporters that provide absorption of short peptides [22,38]. The rate of transport for dipeptides surpasses that for amino acids. Peptidases in the brush-border membrane of enterocytes cleave 40-60% short peptides to di- and tripeptides. This fact also confirms high nutritive value of BAS and the possibility of regulation and coordination of the functions of regulatory systems in the organism with these BAS.
It should be emphasized that short peptides, including dipeptides, have different sensitivity to hydrolysis with peptidases. Some peptides are weakly hydrolyzed in enterocyte brush border. Other dipeptides, including glycyl-glycyl, proline and hydroxyproline dipeptides, glycyl- sarcosine, carnosine and tripeptide glycyl-sarcosyl-sarcosine, do not undergo complete intracellular hydrolysis and enter the portal vein .
It is interesting that insulin, vasopressin, and other hormones include peptide fragments stimulating the growth of microorganisms. Initially these observations produced a conclusion that hormonal regulation in higher animals is similar to regulation of cell division in microorganisms. Since these fragments differ in the amino acid sequence, it was hypothesized that peptides are characterized by the common steric configuration with stimulatory activity . Further studies showed that in bacteria these fragments were formed from amino acids absent in the medium and making the composition more balanced . The stimulatory effect of casein di- and tripeptides on the growth of nematodes was explained similarly . It was concluded that these peptides do not belong to endogenous growth-regulating factors.
Addition of Gln-containing dipeptides Ala-Gln and Gly-Gln to parenteral nutrition prevents disturbances during stress and malnutrition [24,27]. Parenteral nutrition enriched with Gly-Gln dipeptide prevents atrophy of the lymphoid tissue in the small intestine and promotes the recovery of secretory immunity (as differentiated from standard parenteral nutrition), which is related to the increase in IgA content in the intestinal and upper respiratory tract mucosa after intranasal infection of mice with influenza virus H1N1 . Parenteral nutrition enriched with Ala-Gln dipeptide normalizes the nitrogen balance, maintains intracellular Gln content, restores the total lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood, provides intestinal permeability and absorption, and shortens hospitalization period for surgical patients (42-86 years) after abdominal operations .
Peroral peptide preparations with different pharmacological activity are now synthesized and intensively studied [23,39,41]. However, these peptides are characterized by low resistance to enzyme hydrolysis in the stomach and small intestine. The synthesis of modified peptides or enzyme-resistant polymer conjugates would solve this problem [25,26,28,29,31]. Pharmacokinetics of peroral peptide preparations and the role of peptide transport in the small intestine were extensively studied [35,40,42].
Progressive involution of the gastrointestinal mucosa during aging is associated with changes in the rate of regeneration and dystrophic, and atrophic processes. They are characterized by shortening and thickening of villi, decrease in the number of microvilli, and structural impairment of the glicocalix [5,6] Activity of enzymes involved in final cleavage of disaccharides, dipeptides, and esters of phosphoric acid is modified .
Age-related changes in the intestinal mucosa and peculiarities of short peptide absorption provided the basis for synthesizing biologically active food additive from carnosine (β-Ala-His), whose gero-protective effects are primarily related to antioxidant activity of the peptide .
Peroral administration of tetrapeptide Asn-Leu-Pro-Arg (NLPR) to rats with memory disturbances enhances perceptivity, induces behavioral response, and promotes expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain. NLPR improves memory via initiation of NGF expression and holds much promise for the therapy of memory disturbances .
Studies of structural and functional characteristics of peptides elucidated the mechanism of their effects. Amino acid analysis of polypeptide preparations performed at the St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology resulted in the synthesis of their structural analogues. The dipeptide Vilon (Lys-Glu) was synthesized after amino acid analysis of a complex thymic preparation Thymalin and studies of immunobiological and physicochemical properties of amino acids. The tetrapeptide Epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) was constructed after amino acid analysis of the polypeptide preparation from the pituitary gland Epithalamin.
Computer analysis of amino acid sequence of polypeptides (Eucaryotae databank) presented in the PIR bank showed that fragments Lys-Glu and Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly are present in various endogenous regulatory peptides. Lys-Glu is a fragment of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, interferon-γ, splenin, splenopentin, thymosins α1 β4, and β7-β14, thymopoietins I and II, motilin, parathyroid hormone, and somatoliberin. Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly enters the composition of prothymosin, parathymosin, cytostatin, troponin, thyroglobulin, neuron adhesion molecules, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and calmodulin-binding proteins GAP-43 and P-57. The data suggest that peptides Lys-Glu and Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly are formed in the organism from various precursor proteins during proteolysis. A comparative study of biological activity of polypeptide preparations and synthetic peptides revealed that they produce similar effects on various organs and tissues under normal and pathological conditions. Evaluation of the pharmacological effect produced by short peptides during peroral administration is of special interest. Cleavage of Vilon and Epithalon proceeding in media with various pH or induced by proteases of the stomach and contents or homogenate of the small intestine indicates that these preparations are low hydrolyzable or hydrolysis-resistant peptides. These properties of Vilon and Epithalon allowed synthesizing peroral medicinal preparations of peptides for the prevention and correction of immunodeficiency and accelerated aging.
Peroral treatment of male and female Wistar rats aging 3 and 11 months with Vilon and Epithalon affected activity of digestive enzymes (invertase, maltase, alkaline phosphatase, and amino- and dipeptidases) hydrolyzing carbohydrates, proteins, and esters of phosphoric acid in various portions of GIT (stomach, duodenum, ileum, and large intestine). Enzyme activity increased most significantly in 11-month-old animals. Therefore, the differences between enzyme activities in rats of various ages became less pronounced. These data indicate that Vilon and Epithalon regulate enzyme activity in GIT during aging [19,21].
Peroral treatment with Vilon and Epithalon (for 1 month) improved transport in the small intestine in old rats. It should be emphasized that these preparations produced a strong effect on passive and active transport of glucose. Passive accumulation of glucose in the serous fluid of the diverticulum increased in distal (Vilon) and medial portions of the small intestine (Epithalon) by 1.6 and 2.2 times, respectively. Vilon and Epithalon enhanced active absorption of glucose. Vilon 2-fold increased active accumulation of glucose in the serous fluid of the diverticulum in the medial portion of the small intestine. Epithalon intensified this process in the proximal and medial portions of the small intestine by 6 and 8 times, respectively. Peptides had no effect on passive absorption of glycine. Epithalon increased only active absorption of glycine in the proximal and medial portions of the small intestine .
Vilon and Epithalon affect activity of digestive enzymes and absorption of glucose and glycine in the small intestine of old rats. Peptides improve functions of enzyme and transport systems in the small intestine, which probably promotes food assimilation and normalizes digestion during aging.
Modern notions about nutrition and effects of nutrient substances on regulatory systems in the organism, studies of the mechanisms underlying the influence of short peptides, and synthesis of peroral medicinal preparations and parapharmaceutics indicate that the composition of therapeutic and preventive diets should be improved. Short peptides possess geroprotective properties and can be used as parapharmaceutics . Probably, exogenous peptide preparations temporally substitute the impaired element of physiological regulation. This process allows the organism to restore the diminished or lost function and to maintain it for a long time. These data confirm the view that functional compensatory systems can be formed in old organisms . We hypothesize that peptides normalize and maintain protein synthesis in the corresponding organ at a level typical of young individuals. The recovery of proteins in cell receptors normalizes their sensitivity to other humoral regulators.
Physiologically active short peptides should be used as biologically active food additives at any age for the maintenance of metabolic processes, prevention and therapy of various diseases, rehabilitation after severe disorders, traumas, and surgeries, and deceleration of aging.
The appropriate and substantiated use of biologically active food additives from short peptides opens up fresh opportunities for a new field of science, “integral medicine”. Pharmaconutrition in combination with modern diagnostic and procedures holds much promise as an effective and harmless method for the maintenance of health and increase in the lifetime.
Clinical studies revealed the efficiency of bioregulator Svetinorm in the complex improvement of the digestive system functions after different diseases, in case of pathological states causing disorders of the functions of gastrointestinal tract, in case of extreme factors impact, disturbances in lipoprotein metabolism, malnutrition and also in aging. No side effects.
The optimal function of the human digestive system is mainly associated with the optimal interaction of the endocrine and hepatobiliary systems. The key organ of these functions is the liver. Of all the organs, the liver plays the leading role in the metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones, and other substances. The optimum functioning of the human liver is connected directly to the state of the liver cells. For the optimal function of the cells is their optimal supply of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and with peptides required.
A report of the results of clinical study of the biologically active peptide bioregulator of liver origin:
Biologically Active Food Additive Svetinorm® is a complex of low-molecular peptides with molecular weight up to 10 000 Da, isolated from liver of young animals - calves aged up to 12 months. Isolated peptides possess tissue-specific action to liver cells, thus restoring metabolism and normalizing their functional activity.
Svetinorm® is manufactured in the form of capsules, containing 10 mg of active peptides.
The clinical studies of Svetinorm® were carried out at the Medical Center of the Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology of the Northwest Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences in patients with chronic hepatitis and oncological patients after the course of radiation and chemotherapy during the period from October 2003 till January 2004.
Svetinorm® was administered per os 10-15 minutes before meal 1-2 capsules 2 times a day for 10-20 days depending on severity of the pathological process.
Now we see an increase in the number of patients with chronic liver diseases, which affect mostly able-bodies persons. They are mainly caused by unfavorable social and environmental factors. Chronic hepatitis is not an outcome of acute infectious process, but the form of clinical course of infectious process (2, 3).
Now the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis in view of pathogenic mechanisms is carried out using the following traditional therapeutic agents (1):
· Drugs, which improve metabolism of hepatic cells (hepatoprotectors, essentiale, legalon, sirepar)
· bile secretion stimulators (Liv-52)
· B group vitamins (B1, B6, B12), ascorbic acid etc.)
Clinical characteristic of the patients
The clinical studies were carried out in 47 patient with chronic hepatitis and oncological patients after the course of chemotherapy, including 30 men and 17 women in the age from 35 to 68 years (table 1). The disease period has made from 3 to 10 years old. The patients of the main group have also been taking Svetinorm® in addition to the general purpose medicines - 2 capsules, 2 times a day before meal for 15-20 days.
The control groups consisted of 38 similar patients, which have only general purpose treatment.
The complaints were assessed subjectively at different times. The following tests were carried out: general clinical test of blood and urine, biochemical and immunological blood test (determination of immunoglobulins using Mancini method), liver ultrasound.
After treatment using Svetinorm®, most patients noticed elimination of fatigability, improvement of appetite and working capacity. 53% of patients have noticed considerable decrease in intensity of pain syndrome.
Oncological patients have noticed condition improvement, decrease in fatigability, decrease in intensity of dyspeptic disorders.
Recommendations for use
Svetinorm® is recommended for acceleration of restoration of liver function at acute and chronic affection, at treatment with antibiotics and other medicines with unfavorable liver effect, at hypoalimentation, in oncological patients after radiation and chemotherapy, at influence on the organism of various factors. It is also indicated to elderly people for maintenance of the liver function.
It is recommended to take Svetinorm® per os 10-15 minutes before meal 1-2 capsules, 2-3 times a day for 15-20 days.
It may be desired to have one more course in 3-6 months.
1. Mashkovsky M.D. Medicines: Pharmacotherapy for doctors, manual: 2 parts. - Vilnius: ZAO “Gamta”, 1993.
2. Podymova S.D. Liver diseases. - M.: Medicine, 1984. - 480 pages
3. Rakhmanova A.G., Prigozhina V.K., Neverov V.A. Infectious diseases: Manual for general practitioners. - M.-SPb.: Pub. “SSZ”, 1995. - 304 pages
KHAVINSON PROFESSOR, VLADIMIR
At the analysis of Svetinorm® efficiency special attention should be paid to the assessment of the results of biochemical examinations, characterizing aminotransferase activity, pigment and protein-synthesis function of liver. Objectively, most patients after Svetinorm® treatment have noticed stabilization of biochemical indices: bilirubin level, alanine aminotransferase level (table 2). Analysis of immunoglobulins of peripheral blood, being significant criterion of activity of inflammatory process after the course of treatment using Svetinorm®, has resulted in a decrease in IgM level (table 3).
Thus the obtained results testify hepatoprotective properties of Svetinorm® and expediency of its use for complex treatment of acute and chronic liver disorders, in oncological patients after radiation and chemotherapy, and also for prophylaxis of various liver diseases and their complications.
During clinical studies of Svetinorm® there were no side effects, contraindications, complications and drug dependence.
SUPREFORTSuprefort (peptide bioregulator Pancreas) is a peptide bioregulator used to treat and protect the function of the pancreas. As an extract from pancreas Suprefort selectively influence the cells of human pancreatic gland thus improving the functions of the digestive system and maintaining hormonal balance.
Pancreatic peptide Suprefort supports pancreatic health and digestive performance, restores lipid and carbohydeate metabolism and acts as a tissue specific bioregulator to regenerate, repair and restore pancreatic function. Suprefort is a nutritive supplement with natural pancreatic peptides. The pancreas serves many important functions, such as controlling blood sugar and secreting enzymes responsible for digestion. If the pancreas is not kept healthy, it can lead to many different health issues, such as pancreatitis.
Bioregulator Suprefort well tolerated, side effects, complications, contraindications and preparative dependencies when using of Suprefort not identified.
A report of the results of clinical study of the biologically active peptide bioregulator of pancreas origin:
The biologically active peptide bioregulator Suprefort® is a complex of low-molecular peptides with molecular weight up to 10000 Da, isolated from pancreas of young animals - calves aged up to 12 months. Isolated peptides possess tissue-specific action to pancreas cell tissue, thus restoring metabolism and normalizing its functional activity.
Suprefort® is manufactured in the form of capsules, containing 10 mg of active peptides.
Suprefort ® was administered per os 10-15 minutes before meal 1-2 capsules 2 times a day for 10-20 days depending on severity of the pathological process.
The clinical studies of Suprefort ® were carried out at the Medical Center of the Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology in patients with atherosclerosis of various arteries during the period from November 2003 till January 2004.
Deregulation of physiological functions and pathological changes in pancreas result in diseases with signs of nutrition and metabolism disorders.
Consequences of progressive inflammatory process in pancreas are, as a rule, dystrophic processes accompanied with disorders of excretion of digestive pancreatic enzymes, characteristic for chronic pancreatitis. In the presence of disorders of insulin secretion, the patient has symptoms of ‘secondary’ diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus is one of most widespread endocrine diseases: about 1-2% of Earth’s population has it. Besides there are same amount of people with occult diabetes and genetically predisposed to this disease. The diabetes signs in any single case are integrated reaction to mutual action of multiple factors with various combinations (genetic predisposition, chemical and infectious agents of environment, autoimmune processes, nutrition, physical activity, psychological stresses etc.). Detection of new syndromes (diabetes, caused by formation of antibodies to insulin receptors; diabetes caused by genetic defects of insulin structure etc.) is a reason of constant necessity of addition of disease classification. Potential, latent and asymptomatic forms of the diseases without clinical symptoms require special attention concerning prognosis, prophylaxis and treatment (1, 3, 6, 7, 8).
Treatment of chronic pancreatitis is based mainly on diet and enzyme preparations (pancreatin, pansinorm) etc. (5) Treatment of diabetes mellitus without clinical signs requires diet therapy and phytotherapy (2, 4).
Clinical characteristic of the patients
Distribution of the patients by diagnoses, sex and age is shown in the table 1. Treatment using Suprefort® was carried out in 34 patients (18 male and 16 female) with diagnoses ‘Chronic pancreatitis, latent form’ (12 persons) and ‘Diabetes mellitus II type, latent form’ (22 persons).
The patients with chronic pancreatitis were complaining of the loss of appetite, eructation, meteorism, borborygmus, stool disorders. Two groups of patients were formed using random sampling technique, in these groups the patients have similar sex, age and diagnosis: the basic group included 12 patients (8 men, 4 women), control group - 8 patients (4 men, 4 women).
* Р<0.05 – reliable in comparison with the parameter before treatment
** Р<0.05 – reliable in comparison with the parameter in patients of the control group
In patients of the control group, who have been taking general purpose blood glucose lowering drugs, it was not possible to lower the dosage of the medicines, and in 9 patients (52,9%) the dosage of blood glucose lowering drugs was increased with a purpose of normalization of content of blood glucose.
Thus the results of the clinical study obtained confirm an efficiency of Suprefort® and expediency of its use in complex treatment of the patients with chronic pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus II.
Suprefort® does not result in side effects, complications and drug dependence.
Suprefort® is convenient for administration in hospital, out-patient conditions and at home.
Suprefort® can be used as medical and preventive mean in the form of biological active food additive and in the form of adjunct in combination with any means of symptomatic and pathogenetic therapy, used for treatment of patients with chronic pancreatitis and other diabetes mellitus II.
The biologically active peptide bioregulator Suprefort ® normalizes functional activity of pancreas cells.
Suprefort® is well tolerated by patients at oral administration; it does not result in any side effects and can be widely used as a treatment and prophylactic biologically active food additive for complex treatment of pancreatic function disorders.
Recommended Suprefort® dosage
· In patients with chronic pancreatitis - per os 10-15 minutes before meal 1-2 capsules, 2 times a day for 15 days.
· In patients with diabetes mellitus - per os 10-15 minutes before meal 1 capsule, 2 times a day for 15 days in parallel with blood glucose monitoring.
· It is expedient to carry out another treatment course in 3-6 month if needed.
1. Balabolkin M.I. Diabetes mellitus / Endocrine disorders // Diagnostics and treatment of internal diseases: Manual for doctors. - Edited by F.I.Komarova. - M.: Medicine, 1991. - V. 2. - pages 465-492.
2. Belousov Y.B., Moiseev V.S., Lepakhin V.K. Clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy: Manual for doctors. - M.: Universum, 1993. - 398 pages
3. Internal diseases / Edited by A.S. Smetnev, V.G. Kukes. - M.: Medicine, 1982. - 496 pages
4. Yordanov D., Nikolov P., Boychinov Asp. Phytotherapy. - Sofia: Medicine and physical culture, 1972. - 346 pages
5. Mashkovsky M.D. Medicines: Pharmacotherapy for doctors, manual: 2 parts. - Vilnius: ZAO “Gamta”, 1993.
6. Geriatry manual / Edited by D.F. Chebotarev, N.B. Mankovsky. - M.: Medicine, 1982. - 544 pages
7. Teppermen G., Teppermen H. Physiology of metabolism and endocrine system: Translated from English. - M.: Mir, 1989. - 656 pages
Ugolev A.M., Radbil O.S. Digestive system hormones. - M.: Nauka, 1995. - 283 pages
KHAVINSON PROFESSOR, VLADIMIR
The patients of the control group have been taking general purpose medicines. The patients of the main group have been taking Suprefort® in addition to the general purpose medicines - 1-2 capsules, 2 times a day before meal for 15 days.
Diabetes mellitus II in the patients was not accompanied by any clinical signs and was diagnosed on the basis of an increase in glucose level in peripheral blood in view of unbalanced diet.
Control group included 17 patients, who have been taking general purpose medicines. 22 patients of the main group have also been taking Suprefort®. in addition to the general purpose medicines - 1 capsule, 2 times a day before meal for 15 days.
The patient complaints were assessed and compared, general clinical studies of blood and urine were carried out together with blood biochemical test using ‘REFLOTRON’ device, (Boehringer Mannheim, Germany). Duodenal content was examined. Glucose tolerance test was carries out.
It was established that administration of Suprefort® in patients with chronic pancreatitis resulted in increase in appetite and decrease in the rate of dyspepsia.
Laboratory assessment of duodenal content has shown initial decrease in activity of pancreatic enzymes (table 2). After Suprefort® administration there is tendency toward increase in activity of pancreatic enzymes, which correlated with improved clinical symptoms.
Suprefort® in patients with diabetes mellitus II was administered in parallel with glucose tolerance test. It was established that after glucose challenge the patients had characteristic glycemic curve. The patients of the main group have also been taking Suprefort® in addition to the general purpose medicines - 1 capsule, 2 times a day before meal for 10 days. It was shown, that after Suprefort ® administration the test carried out in 2 hours after beginning of the study showed gradual decrease in the glucose level. In 5-10 days after beginning of the treatment course the patients had normal glucose levels. None of the patients had increased dosage of blood glucose lowering drugs, 12 patients (54,5%) were using decreased levels of general purpose medicines and in 7 patients (31,8%) the blood glucose level was below normal values without blood glucose lowering drugs. In 3 patients (13,6%) the parameters remained at the initial level. It is worth noting the stabilization of the blood glucose parameter in the patients of the main group within next 2-3 month after the end of treatment (table 3).
Stamakort Stamakort (peptide bioregulator Stomach Mucas)is a dietary supplement with natural stomach peptides. It normalizes the function of the gastric mucosa by reducing its peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside its cells. Improves the performance of the STOMACH by normalising the digestive functions, helping to prevent gastric ulcers and polyps. It also helps to prevent heartburn, belching and the feeling of heaviness in the stomach.
STAMAKORT is a natural peptide complex obtained from the stomach of young animals. This complex is highly effective in restoring and maintaining the functions of the digestive system. It works by direct action on the cells of the digestive system, stimulates metabolizm and protein synthesis, thus restoring the optimal functionality of the stomach. Stamakort prevents from the age-related alternations.
Sigumir is a dietary supplement with natural cartilage and bone peptides. It normalizes the function of the cartilage and bone tissues by reducing their peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside their cells.
The optimal function of the human musculoskeletal system is connected directly to the state of the cells of cartilaginous tissues. For the optimal function of the cells is their optimal supply of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and with peptides required. The peptides are components of the protein molecules and are released during protein metabolism (Disintegration of the protein into smaller fractions = peptides). The peptides are information molecules, which influence gene expression and start the process of protein synthesis. Formation of proteins is a vital process. This is necessary for the growth of the cells and performing its key features.
Clinical studies revealed the efficiency of Sigumir in the complex restoration of the locomotor apparatus (musculoskeletal system) functions after different diseases, in case of pathological states causing disorders of cartilaginous and osseous tissue functions, in case of extreme factors impact, malnutrition and also in aging. No side effects.
Pielotax® A report of the results of clinical study of the biologically active peptide bioregulator of kidney origin: The biologically active peptide bioregulator Pielotax contains a complex of low-molecular peptides with molecular weight up to 5000 Da, isolated from kidneys of young animals - calves aged up to 12 months. Pielotax is a dietary supplement with natural kidney peptides. It normalizes the function of the kidneys by reducing their peptide deficiency and restoring protein synthesis inside their cells.
A report of the results of clinical study of the biologically active peptide bioregulator of kidney origin:
The biologically active peptide bioregulator Pielotax contains a complex of low-molecular peptides with molecular weight up to 5000 Da, isolated from kidneys of young animals - calves aged up to 12 months.
Pielotax is manufactured in the form of capsules with a content of active substance of 10 mg.
Experimental studies have shown that the peptides possess tissue-specific action on the cells of the tissues from which they were isolated. Cerluten ® peptides regulate metabolism processes in the kidney tissue cells, increase urination system safety margins, having a favorable effect on the organism adaptation processes in extreme conditions, the possess anti-oxidative properties, regulating peroxide oxidation processes in the kidneys. So it is possible to extrapolate an efficiency of administration of Pielotax for restoration of the function of the kidneys and their disorders of various origins.
Metabolic disorders, essential hypertension, infectious and autoimmune disorders, especially age-related, frequently results in kidney affection (3).
Drug treatment of kidney diseases includes administration of the following drugs (1, 2):
· 4-aminoquinolinic series drugs (chloroquine, plaquenil)
· Iimmunomodulatory drugs (thymalinum, levamisole)
· Hypotensive drugs
· Vitamins C and E (antioxidants); etc.
Clinical study of Pielotax was carried out at the Medical center of the Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology since February till August 2011.
Clinical study of Pielotax was carried out in patients with gouty nephropathy; distribution of the patients by sex and age is shown in the table 1. In total 42 patients have been taking part in the study. The patients with gouty nephropathy were complaining of periodic pain in the joints. In connection with long term morbidity in some patients the inflammatory changes were subclinical.
All the patients have been taking symptomatic and pathogenic therapy for the disease, which resulted in temporary reduction in intensity of the symptoms.
Using randomization method the patients were divided into 2 groups - control (15 people) and main (27 people). The patients of the control group have been taking general purpose medicines only.
The patients of the main group have been taking Pielotax, in addition to the general purpose medicines - per os 10-15 minutes before meal 1-2 capsules, 3 times a day before meal for 30 days depending on intensity of the pathological process.
Distribution of the patients by diagnosis, sex and age
* Р<0.05 in comparison with the parameter in the same group of patients before treatment;
#Р<0.05 in comparison with similar parameter in the control group of patients
Thus the results obtain confirm treatment efficiency of Pielotax and expediency of its administration in complex treatment of patients with gouty nephropathy and other diseases related to kidney dysfunction.
Pielotax does not result in side effects, complications and drug dependence.
Pielotax can be used as medical and preventive mean in the form of biologically active food additive and in the form of adjunct in combination with any means of symptomatic and pathogenic therapy, used for treatment of patients with gouty nephropathy and other kidney diseases.
The biologically active peptide bioregulator Pielotax normalizes metabolism in kidney tissues.
Pielotax is well tolerated by patients at oral administration; it does not result in any side effects and can be widely used as a treatment and prophylactic biologically active food additive.
Pielotax is recommended to patients with gouty nephropathy and other diseases per os 10-15 minutes before meal 1-2 capsules 2-3 times a day for 15-30 days depending on severity of the pathological process.
It is recommended to carry out repeated treatment courses in 3-6 month.
It is expedient to recommend Pielotax for treatment and prophylaxis use.
1. Belousov Y.B., Moiseev V.S., Lepakhin V.K. Clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapy: Manual for doctors. - M.: Universum, 1993. - 398 pages
2. Mashkovsky M.D. Medicines: Pharmacotherapy for doctors, manual: 2 parts. - Vilnius: ZAO “Gamta”, 1993.
Geriatry manual / Edited by D.F. Chebotarev, N.B. Mankovsky. - M.: Medicine, 1982. - 544 pages
KHAVINSON PROFESSOR, VLADIMIR
The patient complaints were assessed and compared, general clinical studies of blood and urine were carried out together with blood biochemical test using “REFLOTRON” device (Boehringer Mannheim, Germany). Ultrasonic examination was carried out using ultrasonic device (ALOKA, Japan).
As a result of the studies performed it was established that administration of Pielotax lead to decrease in clinical signs of nephropathy in case of gout in 78% of cases. However, most significant were the results of laboratory tests. The drug administration resulted in activation of metabolism of kidney tissues and intensification of secretory kidney function, which is reflected in dynamics of biochemical indices of the patients (table 2).
According to the data shown in the table 2, the patients of the control group, treated using general purpose methods, had an improvement of biochemical blood indices, reflecting the kidney function. However these indices did not reach normal values. In patients of the basic group the biochemical parameters has reached normal values for men and women. Thus, non-protein nitrogen in the control group has made on the average before treatment 35,4±0,8 (mmol/l, and after treatment - 30,5±0,6 (mmol/l (p<0,05), however in patients o the basic group the parameter decreased to 27,1±0,4 (mmol/l, which is definitely lower in comparison to the control group and corresponds to lower normal limit (28,6 (mmol/l). Same tendency can be seen in the dynamics of the blood urea: decrease in the initially elevated parameter in patients of both groups, however in the basic group this parameter has made 9,2±0,3 (mmol/l, which is close to its normal value (8,3 (mmol/l).
There are also characteristic changes of uric acid content: both in men and women of the basic group after additional use of the drug under examination, the parameters were normalized – in men the amount of uric acid has decreased to 0,44±0,02 (mmol/l (in the control group 0,56±0,01 (mmol/l, norm up to 0,50 (mmol/l); in female of the basic group – up to 0,37±0,03 (mmol/l (in the control group 0,48±0,02 (mmol/l, norm up to 0,40 (mmol/l).
Influence of Pielotax on biochemical blood parameters in patients with gouty nephropathy
Libidon Libidon (Prostate Peptide Bioregulator) is effective in restoring the function of the prostate by selectively interacting with the cells of the prostate and normalizing metabolism in the prostate cells. Libidon maintains health of the prostate gland and reduces its susceptibility to age-related damage thus preventing the†disorders that can lead to prostatitis and further to cancer.
Prostate enlargement or BPH is the most common prostate problem for men with increased need to urinate, poor emptying of the bladder and stuttering urine flow. Libidon is a peptide bioregulator specifically harnessed to boost and protect the function of the prostate.
GOTRATIX is a peptide bioregulator designed to protect the function and health of the muscles. Since the peptides are small biological molecules that consists of two or more amino acids, they are digested and used more readily by the body. As a result, Gotratix helps to keep the muscles working at optimum levels, to increase muscular endurance and to maximize the muscles ability to recover after high physical load.
Clinical studies have showed the effectiveness of bioregulator Gotratix. This preparation is effective in a comprehensive restoration of muscle function during intense physical exertion, including sports, to increase the reserve capacity of the muscle tissue and reduce muscle fatigue, as well as in aging to support muscles system function. No side effects were noted.
The optimal function of the human muscle system is directly related to the state of the cells of the muscles. For the optimal function of the cells is their optimal supply of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and with peptides required. The peptides are components of the protein molecules and are released during protein metabolism (Disintegration of the protein into smaller fractions = peptides). The peptides are information molecules, which influence gene expression and start the process of protein synthesis. Formation of proteins is a vital process. This is necessary for the growth of the cells and performing its key features.
Russian professor Vladimir Khavison discovered the effect of peptides in the 1980s.
The results of his research remained classified for over twenty years.
Glandokort - contains complex of peptides, isolated from the adrenal gland of young, healthy animals. The isolated adrenal glands peptides have a selective effect on different cells of the human adrenal, participate in their cellular metabolism, regulate their functional activity and thus contribute to the regulation of the functions of the adrenal glands.
Improves the performance of the ADRENAL gland which produces cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline hormones. In turn these help to improve stress reaction, reduce apathy and improve control of the body"s metabolism. Glandokort® also helps support the endocrine system in elderly people.
*Р<0.05 – reliable in comparison with the parameter before treatment
#Р<0.05 – reliable in comparison with the parameter in the patients of the control group
Endoluten administration in patients with dishormonal myocardiodystrophy has resulted in improvement of subjective parameters of the disease, which resulted in decrease in the number of heart pain attacks, increase in working capacity and normalization of psychoemotional condition.
Endoluten administration resulted in positive ECG dynamics. Determination of the level of hormones in the blood serum in patient of the basic group has helped to identify a decrease in the level of initial elevated FSH from 89,3±3,5 mU/ml to 46,8±3,9 mU/ml, while normal range is 1,5-45 mU/ml, and in patients of the control group only to 71,6±6,3 mU/ml, which is reliably lower than the parameter before treatment, however much higher than norm (table 2). The same tendency was observed in the LH content dynamics: in patients of the main group under Endoluten influence this parameter has decreased to normal values, while in the control group it has considerably decreased in comparison with the parameter before treatment, but was much higher than norm. Estradiol content, which was initially reliably decreased in female patients of both groups, has increased from 65,4±5,2 pmol/l to 101,3±7,2 pmol/l and was closer to the normal value (110-734 pmol/l), while in patients of the control group this parameter has elevated only to 79,1±4,2 pmol/l.
The study carried out has helped to identify corrective influence of Endoluten of hormonal disbalance, which resulted in normalization of metabolism in myocardium tissues, which has correlated with improvement of the clinical picture of the disease.
Same tendencies of normalization of the hormonal status were observed in patients with climacteric syndrome of mild and moderate degree: Endoluten results in restoration of the hypophysis hormone balance, which correlated with relief of main symptoms. The results of study of Endoluten efficiency in women with climacteric syndrome are shown in table 3.
According to the table 3, administration of Endoluten in patients with climacteric syndrome resulted in improvement of subjective parameters, which caused a reliable decrease in the number of pain attacks in comparison with the parameters before treatment, in the area of heart, dizziness, heart “freezing” feeling and sleep improvement. Besides it resulted in decrease in the number of complaints of tachycardia attacks, perspiration, hot flashes in the head and upper body, blood pressure fluctuation in comparison with patients before treatment and after treatment using general purpose medicines (table 3). After the course of Endoluten the patient have noticed considerable increase in working efficiency, which they related to normalization of psychoemotional condition. What stands out in the report is the fact, that the preparation effect was characterized by stable aftereffect. So in 1-2 month after the end of the course of Endoluten, the symptoms like dizziness, tinnitus, general weakness, sleep disturbances did not relapse.
Dynamics of subjective parameters in patients with climacteric syndrome
A report of the results of clinical study of the biologically active peptide bioregulator of pineal origin:
The biologically active peptide bioregulator Endoluten contains a complex of low-molecular peptides with molecular weight up to 5000 Da, isolated from glandulapinealis (epiphysis/ pineal) of young animals - calves aged up to 12 months.
Endoluten is manufactured in the form of capsules with a content of active substance of 10 mg.
Experimental studies have shown that the peptides possess tissue-specific action on the cells of the tissues from which they were isolated. Endoluten peptides regulate metabolism processes in neuroendocrine cells of various tissues, including epiphysis, increase neuroendocrine system safety margins, having a favorable effect on the organism adaptation processes in extreme conditions; they possess anti-oxidative properties, regulating peroxide oxidation processes in various tissues. So it is possible ot extrapolate an efficiency of administration of Endoluten for restoration of neuroendocrine regulation in case of its disorders of various origins.
According to the results of experiments, Endoluten provides normalization of neuroendocrine regulation of basic functions of the organism.
It is well known, that decrease in functional activity of epiphysis results in decoupling of nervous, endocrine and immune systems, and provide development of various diseases and pathological conditions. An influence of extreme environmental, climatic-geographic, professional, psycho-emotional factors on human organism also results in neuroendocrine and immunological disorders, causing disadaptation disorders and psychosomatic diseases (3, 4, 5, 6).
Medicinal treatment of the diseases and pathological conditions includes application of various medicines, depending on symptoms of the disease. However the correction of the disorders is based on prescription of various medicines (1, 2):
• Adaptogens (ginseng, eleuterococcus, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Snowdon rose extracts, spikenard, devil’s-club infusions, saparal, pantocrin);
• Peptide immunomodulators (timalin, tactivin, timogen, mylopeptide);
• Epiphysis hormone (melatonin)
• Epiphysis peptides (epitalamin)
• Poly vitamins etc.
However the drugs have side effects and cannot be prescribed for prevention of the listed pathological conditions. In this connection development of new effective and safe means for prophylaxis and increase in efficiency of treatment of patients with pathological conditions, related to neuroendocrine regulation disorders, is an pressing issue.
Clinical studies of Endoluten were carried out in 163 patients (including 48 men and 115 women) with dishormonal miocardiodystrophy, physiognic asthenia, mild and moderate climacteric syndrome in women and in oncological patients after the courses of radiation and chemotherapy, who have undergone a course of treatment at the Medical center of Saint Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology of the Northwest Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences since January 2011 till August 2011. Distribution of the patients by clinical entities, sex and age is shown in the table 1.
Distribution of the patients by clinical entities, sex and age
*Р<0.05 – in comparison to the parameter in patients before treatment
#Р<0.05 in comparison with the parameter in patients after treatment using general purpose medicines
Endoluten was also used for complex therapy of men with physiogenic asthenia. The preparation effected marked corrective action on the dynamics of subjective parameters. Men with physiogenic asthenia were complaining of general weakness, dizziness, high fatigability, decreased working capacity and sleep disturbances. An addition of Endoluten to the treatment schedule of this category of patients resulted in elimination of objective symptoms, which resulted in fast and effective improvement of the general condition, while in patients of the control group, taking only general purpose therapy, the condition improvement was very slow and after the end of treatment subjective neurological symptoms have returned. It is significant that Endoluten treatment has marked aftereffect: after the end of application of the drug the improvement of the patient condition remained and was stable during the whole period of observation - no more than 1-3 month.
Thus Endoluten administration is a perspective direction for the therapy of pathological conditions connected to neurovegative function disorders, including climacteric syndrome, physiogenic asthenia, vegetative-vascular dystonia and other psychovegative disorders.
Oncological patients have been also taking Endoluten, they were the patients mainly with hormone-dependent tumors (breast cancer, cervical cancer and other locations), after surgical treatment and after courses of radiation and chemotherapy as a adjunct to the general purpose treatment. The patients were complaining of un-wellness, decreased muscular tone, decrease in appetite, apathy. Before treatment all the patients had changes of hemogram, mostly leucopenia and lymphocytopenia.
The patients were randomized into 2 groups, according to their clinical entity: control groups included 64 persons taking general purpose treatment for their diseases (1, 2). The patients with hormone replacement therapy were not included in the study.
The patients of the main group have been taking Endoluten in addition to the general purpose medicines - 1-2 capsules, 2-3 times a day before meal for 15-30 days depending on intensity of the pathological process.
Endoluten efficiency study was carried out on the basis of generally accepted examination methods. The patient complaints were assessed and compared; general clinical studies of blood and urine, biochemical blood test, electrocardiogram were carried out. The number and functional activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes were assessed using immunological methods. The hormone content (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) in blood serum was determined using radioimmunological method. An assessment of psychophysiological parameters was made using correction task and Lüscher test.
Negative signs of climacteric period considerably decrease working capacity of the women of most able-bodied age; that is why a problem of search for new effective means is so important, these drugs should reduce or completely eliminate pathological condition in women in postmenopausal period, keeping their health and high quality of live.
Endoluten influence on the amount of hypothesis hormones in blood serum оf patients with dishormonal myocardiodystrophy
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